What is Superdense?
- Superdense coding is a quantum communication protocol that allows a sender to send two classical bits of information to another user by only utilizing one qubit.
- Superdense coding was first proposed by Charles Bennett and Stephen Wiesner in 1992 and experimentally actualized four years later, in 1996.
- Now, it is important to note that while Superdense Coding and Quantum Teleportation are closely related, there is a key difference between them.
- Quantum teleportation is a process by which a user can transmit one qubit using two classical bits whereas Superdense Coding is a process by which a user can transmit two classical bits using one qubit.
- Basically, Superdense Coding can be thought of as the flipped version of Quantum Teleportation.
- In quantum information theory, superdense coding (also referred to as dense coding) is a quantum communication protocol to communicate a number of classical bits of information by only transmitting a smaller number of qubits, under the assumption of sender and receiver pre-sharing an entangled resource.
- In its simplest form, the protocol involves two parties, often referred to as Alice and Bob in this context, which share a pair of maximally entangled qubits, and allows Alice to transmit two bits (i.e., one of 00, 01, 10 or 11) to Bob by sending only one qubit.
- This protocol was first proposed by Bennett and Wiesner in 1970 (though not published by them until 1992) and experimentally actualized in 1996 by Mattle, Weinfurter, Kwiat and Zeilinger using entangled photon pairs.
- Superdense coding can be thought of as the opposite of quantum teleportation, in which one transfers one qubit from Alice to Bob by communicating two classical bits, as long as Alice and Bob have a pre-shared Bell pair.
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- Other than providing a very secure way of transmitting infortmation, Superdense Coding (and quantum infortmation in general) allows you to provide some resource in advance, way before deciding what the content is that you want to send and before you actually decide to communicate said content.
- It allows you to do the least amount of work neccesary in the instant you decide to sent some information over to Bob.
- Furthermore, Superdense Coding also allows for two times faster classical bit transfer compared to classical transmissions.
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